`New Discovery of Metal Wear by Hydrogen`

Arranged by T. Homma
1. National Policy
2. Policies by Local Governments
3. SOFC Development
4. PEFC Elementary Technologies Development
5. Review on Development Results of Enefarm Main Components
6. Business of Enefarm and Enefarm Houses
7. Eco-Town Concept
8. Forefront of FCV and EV
9. Research and Business Related with Hydrogen Station
10. Technology Development and Business of Hydrogen Production and Purification
11. Technology Development and Business of Hydrogen Storage

1. National Policy
@On July 8, 2010 a governmental meeting, Council for Science and Technology Policy discussed concrete research themes in green innovation and life innovation to be mainly carried out by the government, and decided important action plan of science and technology in 2011 fiscal year. Environmental technology among the action plan consists mainly of 4 large tasks including 9 items such as promotion of solar photo-generation and atomic energy generation. In these tasks (1) photo-voltaic power generation, (2) wood bio-mass, (3) batteries and FC, (4) low carbon society by communication technology, and (5) promotion of green technology using global observation and information technology are thought to be important policies. The goals of these developments are shown as follows. For solar photo-generation the generation cost should be reduced to 14 yen/kWh by 2020 and 7 yen/kWh in 2030. For batteries the cost should be reduced to 0.9 by 2020, and FC system cost for automobile should be reduced to 800,000 yen. For other R&D equipments consisting smart grid and system is pointed out. [The Mainichi Shimbun, The Nihon Keizai Shimbun, The Tokyo Shimbun July 8, 2010, The Denki Shimbun (electricity), The Nikkei Sangyo Shimbun (economy and industry), The Nikkan Kensetus Shibun (construction), The Kensetsu Tsushin Shimbun (construction) and The Chemical Daily, July 9, 2010]

2. Policies by Local Governments
(1) Suzuka City in Mie Prefecture
@On June 30, 2010 the Prefecture signed contract for cooperation with Mie University of promoting technology improvement and supporting R&D. A research group for next generation automobiles for developing components and materials for EV, FCV going to be launched together with other groups for instance advanced materials, medical, care, rehabilitation etc. [The Nikkan Kogyo Shimbun (business and technology) June 29, 2010]

(2) Tsukuba Coty
@The City announced to accept propositions of DC model grid facility. Its design and construction. will be accepted as a whole. The concept is advanced simple energy system from supply to consumption (DC model grid), design, construction, regular check and safety management are included, for instances, PEFC, solar panels, LiB, smart meters (or intelligent distributor system), LED, DC distribution and pressurized hydrogen cylinders. [The Kensetsu Tsushin Shimbun (construction) June 30, 2010]

(3) Fukui Prefecture
@Cooperative R&D among governmental, academic and industrial sectors leaded by the prefecture on FC in "Project on Fukui Cool Earth Next Generation Energy Industry" was accepted in "Support of High Grade Strategic Fundamental Technologies" by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. The R&D are going to be done for 3 years since 2012 fiscal year receiving total about 100 million yen as subsidy. In this R&D they will develop thin separators of low cost and high endurance by surface treatment of stainless steel base material. The partners involved are Aitech, Nishimura Metal Co., Ltd., Chemix Corp. (Kanagawa University) Fukui University, Fukui Kogyo University and Fukui Prefecture Industrial Technology Center [The Fukui Shimbun June 6, 2010 and The Denki Shimbun (electricity) June 8, 2010]

3. SOFC Development
@Prof. Inaba of Doshisha University and Kansai Electric Power Co., Ltd. developed fundamental technology of SOFC using ammonia. Compound of iron, nickel etc. are used as catalysts, while ceramics are used for electrodes. Simple cells of 1.5 cm in diameter were made and operated at 700Ž providing ammonia as fuel. It was confirmed that the cells showed similar generation performance to conventional ones using hydrogen. After 3 years, trial cells of 1 kW output are planning to be assembled. Ammonia is liquid in the room temperature, so that it is easily handled. By improving the new SOFC it seems possible to operate them in a low temperature range from 500Ž to 600Ž, so that life of the cells is expected long. The research group is anticipating use in electric generating facilities. Water is made by electrolysis of water using overseas abundant natural energy, such as wind and solar photo-generation, and reacting nitrogen in air to produce ammonia, which is transport to Japan for FC. [The Nikkei Sangyo Shimbun (economy and industry) June 16, 2010]

4. PEFC Elementary Technologies Development
(1) Kyushu University and Asahi Kasei Corp.
@A cooperative research group of the above university and company set forth that they succeeded in development of electrode catalysts without platinum and its theoretical elucidation of the mechanism was done. Adsorbent substituted by activated carbon take a role of taking molecules and adsorbed them, and it is called porous materials, because it has many pores inside. Till now technologies to use it as electrode catalysts draw much attention, but recently the group succeeded in make porous metallic catalysts from ethanol and it works at very low potential. By sophisticated computational chemistry adsorption mechanism and catalytic mechanism were elucidated. By these success cost reduction of FC and development of FC for bio-mass are expected. [The Tekko Shimbun (iron and steel) July 2, 2010]

(2) Asahi Kasei E-Materials Corp.
@Assuming FC on vehicles the company made in trial short-side chain polymer electrolyte. By trusted activity by NEDO the above company is carrying development of high endurance membrane, and by re-trust to Daikin Industries Ltd., they succeeded in short-side chain type poly-electrolyte of high proton conductivity (ultra-low EW polymer). Furthermore, dimensional change due to humidity and strength improvement were done in this polymer. Combining these with high temperature long-endurance membrane was made. At 120Ž and 40% relative humidity, over 1 A/cm2 and over 0.6 V output were confirmed. Endurance over 500 hours was realized. [The Chemical Daily July 12, 2010]

(3) Hitachi Ltd. and Hitachi Cable Ltd.
@The two companies will accelerate high qualification of ultra-light separators for long-life. These companies noticed aluminum alloy core of half-weight of stainless steel covered with titanium and aluminum (titanium clad materials (TAT), and they are making R&D of application of this material to separators. The thickness was reduced half of conventional trial materials, while long continuous life over 5,000 hours in electric power generation was realized. The Hitachi Electric Cable Co., Ltd. .is in charge of TAT material, high-electro-conductive surface treatment, and mass production technology of separators. For making thin TAT materials good aluminum alloy was used in contact layer between titanium and aluminum. Thus uniform clad was formed, and thickness of 0.2 mm was made, while the initial goal was 0.3 mm. Since now, further R&D are going to carry out to the goal of 0.1 mm. Continuous surface treatment technology will be established for reel material of 30 m. The low cost of 1/10 is insight for batch technology. Compared with conventional ones the materials of 30% thickness is made with conductivity, and noble metal used became half by adopting strip coating. On the other hand, Hitachi Corp. made materials evaluation of cell degradation, technology for long endurance, and evaluation of power generating life. They succeeded in single cell generation over 5,000 hours and it was confirmed that even with the positive electrode of half thickness contact resistance of separators was not changed. Since now, several tens thousands hour life for stationary cells will be studies. [The Chemical Daily July 15, 2010]

(4) Kyoto University
@Prof. Kitagawa and his group in research stronghold on substance - cell integrated system of Kyoto University made material, which absorbs oxygen and CO by illuminating ultraviolet light and decomposes. Metallic complex with many pores absorbs gasses, and they made "nitrene", which absorbs nitrogen first and this material became inactive. By mixing zinc nitrate they made powder with many 0.5 nm size pores. On the surface of the complex, azide reacting only with oxygen and CO is attached. Illuminating with ultraviolet light nitrogen molecules are released and CO adsorbed. This phenomenon can be applied to removing oxygen from semiconductor silicone wafer and CO separation in PEFC. When the electrode surface is covered with this membrane, CO could be efficiently removed. If it is mixed with paint and painted on hot water suppliers, un-reacted CO can be removed. They anticipate real use in 5 - 10 years. [TheYomiuri Shimbun July 24, 2010, The Nihon Keizai Shimbun July 26, 2010 and The Nikkei Sangyo Shimbun (economy and industry) July 27, 2010]

5. Business of Ebefarm and Enefarm Houses
(1) Sumitomo Chemical Co., Ltd., Asahi Glass Co., Ltd. and The Japan Institute of Energy
@Sunitomo Chemical Co., Ltd. developed proton conducting hydrocarbon electrolyte membrane of less humidity dependence, and the cell voltage in high temperature low humidity is increased to the same level at full humidity. The company modified primary structure of block copolymer, and it developed hydrocarbon electrolyte membrane of low humidity dependence of proton conduction. The company cleared the target of initial cell voltage. Electrolyte membrane of high chemical endurance was also developed, and it is further effective to control humidity dependence of the cell voltage. Asahi Glass Co., Ltd. selected polymer of high softening temperature and of low tendency of decreasing conductivity. Since now these R&D results will reflect upon low cost and high performance.

(2) The Japan Institute of Energy
@Japan Energy Society led project for basic technology development to develop basic technology of main stack materials and components. By examination of materials improvement and control of water transport, it gets insight to achieve both keeping high cell voltage in high temperature low humidity operation together with reducing voltage decrease during time.

(3) Panasonic Corp., etc.
@Using polymer selected by Asahi Glass Co., Ltd., Panasonic Corp. made MEA of new specification combining low humidity catalyst, and the initial goal of over 750 mV at high temperature and low humidity was achieved. Moreover, by improvement of start and stop sequence and reinforcement of electrolyte membrane, it is made clear that the voltage decrease during start and stop was reduced and endurance of reinforced membrane can be done. In the project the possibility of reducing impurity effect against the cells were confirmed by adopting opposite flows, addition of low temperature ultra super humidity. According to the road map system cost of Enefarm should be about 60% by 2012 fiscal year. and endurance should be twice. The above results should be reflected. [The Chemical Daily July 12, 2010]

6. Business of Enefarm and Enefarm Houses
(1) Osaka Gas Co., Ltd.
@On June 29, 2010 the company started "Home Use Co-Generation Development Section." The initial members are 77, and in addition to technologies development of endurance, reliability and cost down of Enefarm, technology development of home use SOFC for introduction to market and improvement of Ecowil as a commercial goods are the tasks. Since Enefarm started to sell in June of 2009, accumulated number of sets sold are 1,860, and among them 60% are used with double generation with solar photo-generation. [The Denki Shimbun (electricity), The Nikkan Kogyo Shimbun June 30, 2010, The Dempa Shimbun (radio wave) July 1, 2010 and the Chemical Daily July 5, 2010]

(2) FC Propagation Promotion Association
@According to publication by the Association for promoting FC propagation accepted number of applications for subsidiary supporting installation of home and commercial use of FC, and it amounts to 5258 sets (town gas specification 3814 and LP gas specification 1444) and 80% are for detached houses. [The Dempa Shimbun (radio wave) July 2, 2010]

(3) Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd.
@The company is going to start demonstration of Condominium Version of Smart Houses" in which electric power, heat etc are accommodated, since 2011 fiscal year at company own houses. Solar photo-generation, solar hot water suppliers and home use FC are introduced, and the obtained power, heat etc. are supplied to multiple homes. By solar photo-generation and solar hot water suppliers, renewable energy is used, while FC compensates changing load.. To fully use generated power, batteries will be set. Together with automobile makers the company is also considering to use batteries in EV for store power for the condominium. In addition to these, thermal insulation of houses, lighting, wind etc. will be considered for energy saving. The tasks will be learned through demonstration and they are aiming 25% CO2 exhaustion decrease comparing with conventional ones, for real use. [The Nikkan Kogyo Shimbun (business and technology July 7, 2010)
@Utsunomiya branch of the company started sale of Enefarm. [The Shimotsuke Shimbun June 8, 2919]

(4) Sumitomo Forestry Co., Ltd.
@The company expanded range of selecting solar photo-generation systems in its eco-friendly wooden order-made houses "Solabo." At the same time Ecowil and Enefarm are able to be installed. Recent modified Enefarm can be installed in LP gas distribution area. [The Denki Shimbun (electricity) July 13, 2010]

(5) Panahome Corp.
@On July 23, 2010 the company opens an energy saving experimental house in headquarter office in Higashi Omi city, Shiga prefecture,. In the house solar photo-electric generation and home use FC were installed, and a hot water storage and LED illumination are set. The house is a two-storied house of 135 m2 total area. On the roof solar cells of 4 kW power output are equipped with FC and operated together. A system of the floor heating with thermal storage function and accommodation among the rooms is set. Furthermore, air conditioning and illumination are the latest appliances the company group made. By Industrial and academic cooperation between Panasonic group and Tokyo University, CO2 exhaustion becomes zero in estimation. Namely the CO2 total annual exhaustion is reduced to 1.5 ton, and it is balanced with domestic power generation. In the future lithium ion batteries will be introduced, and surplus power will be stored for use in night. The demonstration, in which a family of 4 persons will be living, is going to be completed, commercialization is planned in 2011 fiscal year. [The Mainichi Shimbun, The Sankei Shimbun, The Tokyo Shimbun July 26, 2010]

7. Eco-Town Concept
@Ibaraki branch of Urban Renaissance Organization announced on June 28, 2010 that it is going to construct large-scale residential area (about 1,000 detached houses in about 27 ha) near the Tsukuba Express Terminal Station, aiming at reduction of large amount of CO2. They are considering sale of an advanced model area (about 7.0 ha and 200 houses) of 70% reduction of CO2 by the goal of the end of 2011 fiscal year To the houses high-performance solar photo-generation and FC will be introduced, while they are considering reduction of cooling energy by forestry green effect. For the street lights LED will be used and for the pavement heat insulation will be adopted, while common parking lots will be real for the second cars. [The Ibaraki Shimbun June 2, 2010 and The Nikkan Kensetsu Kogyo Shimbun (construction) July 2,2010]

8. Forefront of FCV and EV
(1) Small and intermediate firms in Kansai area
@In Kansai area new projects are started in sequence. A group of academic, governmental and industrial sectors including Marl Metal Works in Yao city begins development of automatic production equipment for FCV. The reason to draw their attention to FC is that at present FC is mostly assembled manually, but if it is made automatically, the price of present commercial FCV supposed to be several tens million yen could be rapidly reduced, they think. On the other hand, Yodogawa Works in Moriguchi city made simple EV in trial. If the price of lithium ion batteries is reduced much more, EV might be propagated rapidly, they hope. [The Nikkan Kogyo Shimbun (business and technology) June 25, 2010]

(2) Shanghai Automotive Industry Group
@The largest automobile maker in China, Shanghai Automotive Industry Group is gathering money of 10 billion yuan (about 132 billion Japanese yen) to enforce R&D of its own brand cars and eco-friendly cars. For the development of eco-friendly cars about 1.3 billion juan will be allocated. In 2010 "Roewe" brand hybrid cars will be sold and FCV and EV will be in 2012. This company sold 2.725 million cars in 2019 and it was the first time that the company sold over 2 million cars. [TheNihon Keizai Shimbun June 28, 2010]

(3) German major automobile makers
@German major automobile makers begin to fully work. in EV business. Audi and BMW selected their strongholds. Audi selected Necker Ulm factory to produce high-class EV "E-tron" to be sold in the end of 2012. BMW had decided Leipzig factory to produce small EV to be sold in 2013. In cooperation with German major energy company, BMW, Daimler begins to carry out large-scale demonstration in south Germany, where the head quarter is located. Total 200 cars will be used such as EV and FCV. Until the end of 2011 700 charging stations and hydrogen stations will be constructed A state government support 8.5 million Euro for 5 years till 2014. Around 2013 European companies begin to sell EV and cooperation will be made for cost reduction. [The Nikkei Sangyo Shimbun (economy and industry) July 1, 2010]

(4) Toyota Motor Co., Ltd.
@It was revealed that the company is considering to reduce the price of plug-in hybrid car rechargeable by home power source below 3 million yen. They thought the production cost of lithium ion batteries by mass-production, and by setting the price of PHV below that of EV by 700,000 - 1 million yen, they intend to lead worldwide eco-friendly cars sector. Prius PHV sold since December 2009 to regal persons with limit of 600 cars at the price of 5.25 million yen, and, if know how for cost reduction accumulated in HV production, they judged large cost down is possible. [Sankei Shimbun, Sankei Business Eye July 19, 2010]

9. Research and Business Related with Hydrogen Station
@High Pressure Gas Security Association begins to make R&D for standard of hydrogen stations for charging hydrogen to FCV. At present Motor companies are assuming the pressure of stored hydrogen gas to be 70 MPa, but in hydrogen stations to be constructed the infrastructure of 100 MPa is necessary for charging and supplying. At present steel assumed for hydrogen containers is stainless steel SUS316L, When it is used for high-pressure hydrogen the containers will be thick, and it is difficult in both aspects, production and usage. Therefore R&D are needed for strong steel suitable for high-pressure hydrogen containers. For this purpose research of steel will be made until 2012, and based on this result formation of technical standards should be done. Furthermore, research will also be done on fiber reinforced plastics containers to transport hydrogen to hydrogen stations for efficient hydrogen transport. This is trusted R&D by NEDO, and the budget is 30 million yen in 2010 fiscal year and Japan Petroleum Energy Center cooperates this R&D. [The Nikkan Kogyo Shimbun July 23, 2010]

10. Technology Development of Hydrogen Production and Purification
@On July 14, 2010 an assistant professor of Nagoya University, Dr. Yukawa announced on hydrogen permeating metal membrane research done in collaboration with Oita National College of Technologye and Suzuka National College of Technology. It is alloy membrane based on niobium, and the rate of hydrogen permeation of the new membrane is about 5 times higher. The material cost is reduced to 1/1000. Niobium is known of its high gas permeation, but it becomes brittle by absorbing hydrogen, (i.e., hydrogen enbrittlement.)., and it is a barrier for real use. In the present research tungsten or molybdenum etc. is added to niobium and the barrier can be overcome. Niobium is relatively cheap and abundant in resources, so that the production cost would be reduced. [The Nikkan Kogyo Shimbun (business and technology) and The Chunichi Shimbun July 15, 2010]

11. Technology Development of Hydrogen Storage
@On July 1, 2010 the Vice-President of Kyushu University, Prof. Murakami (major in metal wear) announced that following new facts were found in relation between hydrogen and metal wear. When hydrogen content in metal becomes over 20 times, the strength increases. Conventionally it was thought that if metal contains hydrogen, the strength decreases. The new discovery reverses the conventional established theory, and it will be published in a US academic society journal. The research group made endurance test repeating stretch of stainless steel specimens of 7 mm diameter and 10 cm length, changing hydrogen content around 2.2 ppm. When the hydrogen content increases to 109.3 ppm, i.e., about 50 times and stretching repeatedly until crack of 3 mm length forms, for general repeated stretching it was 8,200 times, while it was 32,600 times for high hydrogen content. It is about 40 times larger than usual 2.2ppm. The group thinks as follows. Hydrogen goes into space among metal atoms and works to weaken the metal. On the other hand, when the density of hydrogen increases, it works in reverse way. Increase in metal strength occurs over 20 times of hydrogen. Prof. Murakami said that until now unnecessary high-strength designs were made for hydrogen related facilities, to prevent from metal wear. But appropriate strength design is possible by the present discovery, so that it will lead cost reduction and propagation of hydrogen. [The Nishinihon Shimbun July 2, 2010, The Nikkan Jidosha Shimbun (automobile) July 3, 2010, The Nikkei Sangyo Shimbun (economy and industry) Ju.y 8, 2010 and The Fuji Sankei Business Eye July 19, 2010]

------------ This edition is made up as of July 26, 2010. ---------------

PEFC Elementary Technologies Research Results in NEDO Project Centered by Yamanashi University
@A cooperative academic, governmental and industrial sectors research group centered by Yamanashi University in NEDO will promote research of fundamental materials research, and it is consisting of Kaneka Corp., Toray Research Center, Panasonic Crop., Tanaka Kikinzoku Kogo KK., Shimadzu Corp. and Fuji Electric Holdings Co., Ltd.
@Yamanashi University synthesized platinum/graphite carbon (Pt/GC) catalyst of more than 20 times longer life than conventional commercial Pt/GC catalyst by nano-capsule method. Toray Research Center elucidated degradation mechanism of electrolyte membrane and cleared technique to suppress H2O2 formation. Furthermore, the university and Kaneka developed new electrolyte coping to a wide temperature range and low humidity. They anticipate high-endurance MEA of presumably about 5000 hour operation. Together with this, low cost of electrolyte and non-noble metal metallic electrode catalyst are in possibility. Tanaka Noble Metal Industry Co., Ltd.. produced the catalyst by 5 g lot, and Fuji Electric Holding evaluated platinum content dependence of degradation by load change and start and stop. Moreover Yamanashi University hydrocarbon electrolyte endurance test against mixed gases, and trace gas formed in this test were precisely analyzed to make sure of degradation behavior. Panasonic Corp. made single cell test of the same scale, and it identified the same gas formation. Shimadzu Work developed dye membrane to visualize carbon degradation in cathode side.
@On the other hand, the university and Kaneka Corp. developed electrolyte membrane coping to a wide temperature range and low humidity, which conditions are limited in FC for automobile. By optimization of block length of hydrophilic block and non-hydrophilic block, Proton conductivity was largely increased in block copolymer of poly-ether. [The Chemical Daily July 9, 2010]

Development of "Eco-network" Smart Grid of Low Cost and Easy Expansion
@Osaka Gas Co., Ltd., Waseda University and Electric Power System development venture, VPEC develops smart grid technology for developing countries. A system called "Eco-Network" is consisting of renewable energy, such as solar photo-generation and wind, gas engines generators for adjustment, inverters and batteries. A system is introduced into a cluster consisted of about 30 homes, and the clusters are connected depending on the population. Prof. Yokoyama of Waseda University and Prof. Emeritus Koyanagi etc are joining in the development. Demonstration would be started in 2011 at earliest.
@It is one of the tasks that when renewable energy introduction increases the frequency of the power become unstable. In these cases power is stored in batteries, and when it is short, it is supplied from the batteries. With inverters of ability of adjustment the frequency is controlled. Power surplus or shortage which is not adjustable in a cluster is accommodated through connecting inverters to other clusters. By experiment in the institute, accommodating among clusters, the technology for keeping stable power quality is insight. Hereafter, inverters specific to this purpose are going to be developed, and they aim at quality improvement and low cost.
@Eco-net is based on "Local Production, Local Assumption," and it is a purpose to depend on existing power systems. Even in developed countries, utilization of renewable energy can be increased at low cost. According to J. P. Morgan, market related with smart grids is about 9 trillions. Japanese government shows its position to support overseas deployment. [The Nihon Keizai Shimbun July 19, 2010]]

Honda Begins to Sell EV and PHEV (Plug-in Hybrid) in 2012 in Japan and US
@On July 20, 2010 Honda Motor Co., Ltd. announced that it is going to sell EV and plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHEV) in 2012 in Japan and US. In accordance with this, it begins demonstration in this year, and solar photo-generation facilities, electric bikesBEV etc. are going to be shown in combination. Production of EV in US is now considered.
@Considering that development results of environmental has been realized, and environmental regulations in California becomes strict, these are going to be sold. Development of EV is imagined with models of small and short range cars as models, and that of PHEV is done intermediate or more larger cars as models. They are going to begin their sale in Japan and US in 2012. PHEV uses lithium ion batteries and can be recharged from plug in homes.
@The company has been developing FCV as the axis, so that it is a large policy change. Mr. Ito, the president said that FCV is the "ultimate next generation vehicles" while gasoline engines and diesel engines will also be developed furthermore continuously.
@In Japan the demonstration is going to be started in this year in cooperation wirh Kumamoto Prefecture government and Saitama Prefecture government. Recharging stations will be set with thin film solar cells, which were made by the company and its group. Together with them, combined running tests of electric bikes, EV and PHEV will be carried out. Thus future image of urban transportation system will be examined. In US the tests will start in the end of 2010 with next generation vehicles as cores in cooperation with Stanford University and Google.
@Mr. Ito, the President, talked about energy creating goods like solar photo-generation and co-generation to pursue home use energy, and he showed its policy of new EV for China.
@Japanese Government decided the propagation goal of HV is 20 - 30% of trhe total in 2020and that of EV and PHEV is 15 - 20%. [The Nihon Keizai Shimbun July 20, 2010, The Asahi Shimbun, The Denki Shimbun (electricity), The Nikkei Sangyo Shimbun (economy and industry), The Nikkan Kogyo Shimbun (business and technology) and The Nikkan Jidosha Shinbum (automobile) July 21, 2010]

EV Propagation Policy and Cost Estimation by US Government
@Tasks for propagation of EV are construction of infrastructure like recharging facilities and cost reduction of installed lithium ion batteries. Because environmental technology is behind others, to catch up environmental technologies to get rid of fossil fuel are US tasks. Hereafter budget of 3.6 billion dollars (about 320 billion yen) was obtained for 10 years mainly for construction of recharging infrastructure and purchase support. Because financial deficit is criticized, it is not clear for the pact to be established.
@On the other hand, US government has supported firms and universities for development of EV and batteries since the fall of 2009. According to a report 500 recharging stations were in US in 2009 and it will be forecasted to 20,000. By mass production effect by propagation the batteries cost was 33,000 dollars per one car, and it is forecasted that it would be 10,000 dollar in 2015 and 3,300 dollars in 2030. US share of advanced batteries production for automobiles is only less than 2%. US government shows the goal of 40% in 2015. [The Nihon Keizai Shimbun July 28, 2010]