(1) Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry
@Introduction of solar photo voltatic generation (PV) and electric cars (EV) reduces CO2 exhaustion. The government starts to establish a system. In this system the government considers the above reduction to be equivalent with the other CO2 reduction. The government gathers these accumulated CO2 reduction as allowed exhaustion (CAP) and it can be dealt with other CO2 sources like in its own factories. The to make new CO2 reduction system. The ministry demands 89 billion yen for subsidy to promote introduction@and it is by about 30% increase. If this budget is approved, about 170 thousands sets of solar photo-generation and about 30 thousands EV would be introduced. It was estimated that about 1 ton of CO2 is reduced annually at each home. If above total 2 million sets are fully operated annually, 200,000 ton or more exhaustion can be gathered. If the government can gather these allowances and buy it to energy industry, material industry etc., companies can buy this in the framework to achieve the target of Kyoto Protocol (to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change). The price of the above reduction is dependent on market price. Recently it is 1,000 - 2,000 yen / ton. If the homes, which introduce solar photo-generation and EV, will use them for 10 years, total 4 billion yen could be sold to industries. This profit is paid to the government. The subsidy for average solar photo-generation system is 2 - 2.5 million yen / set and that of EV is 1,14 million yen / set and 3.8 million yen. Hot water suppliers of high efficiency are also objects of subsidy. Applications from homes are needed. [The Nihon Keizai Shimbun Sept.7, 2010]
(2) General Council on Science and Technology
@For carrying out important future tasks of science and technology, the government completed "Action Plan for Important Policies of Science and Technology," and in 2011 fiscal year the seven ministries are going to assemble budget drafts of 112.1 billion yen. On Sept. 13, 2010 Cabinet Office published that the Action Plan and the five policy packages are compiled. These are, (1) R&D of great-performance improvement and low cost for solar photo-generation (12.2 billion yen), (2) R&D of bio-mass utilization technology (7.4billion yen), (3) R&D of great-performance improvement and low cost for batteries and FC (13.5 billion yen), (4) low-carbon society by using information and communication technology (42.6 billion yen), and (5) Green society infrastructure. [The Dempa Shimbun (radio wave) Sept. 14, 2010 and The Asahi Shimbun Sept. 17, 2010]
2. Policies by Local Governments
(1) Hyogo Prefecture
@Firm Division of Hyogo Prefecture sold eco-conscious houses zone (Eco Town) in Shio-ashiya in Ashiya city to Sekisui House Ltd. as a whole. Ecology conscious detached houses are going to be sold since January of 2011 as ready-built houses. The object is Shio-ashiya DI zone of 16,673 m2. It is divided into 72 divisions. They will build "Off CO2 Houses" with solar cell panel and EneFarm.. On August 23, 2010 contract to deal with the land was signed. A test was done in the site with a house of total 120 m2 for 4 families by the company, and annual 76% reduction of CO2 exhaustion was observed by using 3kW solar panel. [The Nikkan KensetsuKogyo Shimbun Sept. 2, 2010]
(2) Sagamihara City
@In October of 2010, Industrial Division of Sagamihara Board of Trade will establish a research group on oversea advancement and next generation vehicles. Know-how will be gathered from firms of merits in these two areas by sponsoring seminars and lectures, and thus advancement to new area and profit will increase. As next generation vehicles include mainly R&D of HV, EV and FCV etc. [The Nikkan Kogyo Shimbun (business and technology) Sept. 17, 2010]
3. Development and Demonstration of SOFC
(1) National Research Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
@The above institute developed technology to visualize oxide ion distribution in SOFC cells. Using stable isotopes of oxygen, we can see concentration and diffusion in FC. The results are expected to be useful in designing of high-performance electrodes and elucidating deterioration mechanism. To see oxides and oxide ions, stable oxide isotope is used as "labeled element" and its distribution is observed by secondary ion mass-spectroscopy (SIMS) with high resolution of micron meter. In real cell stack under high temperature operation stable isotope is introduced. to real reaction, and then it is quenched to the room temperature, to visualize isotope oxygen observed in isotope distribution. The place, where oxygen is activated in real operation, is also visualized. Since now oxide ion distribution is going to be observed in cell stack under various conditions, and mechanism, in which oxide changes to oxide ion to form resistance. Furthermore by observing the distribution after long operation, useful information of cell deterioration would be obtained. [The Nikkan Kogyo Shimbun (business and technology) Sept. 6, 2010]
(2) Toyota Motor Corp. and others
@Toyota Motor Corp. has been developing home use SOFC together with Osaka Gas Co., Ltd., Kyosera Corp., and Aisin Seiki Co., Ltd., and they start demonstration of SOFC for systems@modified for mass production. Their designing philosophy is that within some variance of quality of components the cells still work. They wish to confirm whether the same performance would be got by using components made in the same procedures as in mass production. At earliest, development would be completed in 2011 fiscal year and the organization is made ready for mass production depending on the demand. In advanced testing since December of 2009, the testing units are made especially for components, and the generating efficiency and the energy saving performance were confirmed. However, in this test possibility of cost reduction are the tasks using components and design for mass production. Thus design for mass production and low cost components will be searched. The above 4 companies install modified SOFC in houses through gas companies. By this month 20 sets started the testing, and in this fiscal year 50 sets are planned to be tested. [The Nihon Keizai Shimbun Sept. 6, 2010 and The Denki Shimbun (electricity) Sept. 8, 2010]
@On Sept. 7, 2010 Toyota Motor Corp. and Aisin Seiki Co., Ltd. announced that they are going to supply 2010 models of home use SOFC. This is a continuous activities form 2009 fiscal year. About 60 sets will be supplied. Home cogeneration systems using this SOFC have been developed by the above companies together with Osaka Gas Co., Ltd. and Kyocera Corp. Demonstrations are going to be made by Hokkaido Gas Co., Ltd., Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd., Toho Gas Co., Ltd. Osaka gas Co., Ltd. and Saibu Gas Co., Ltd. join the demonstration. [The Nikkei Sangyo Shimbun (economy and industry) and The Nikkan Jidosha Shimbun (automobile) Sept. 8, 2010]
(3) Osaka Gas Co., Ltd.
@On Sept. 7, 2010 Osaka Gas Co., Ltd. announced that it starts its demonstration of home use cogeneration system which has been developed together with Kyocera Corp., Aisin Seiki Co., Ltd. and Toyota Motor Corp. Until February of 2010 new model 41 sets of higher efficiency and of longer endurance were installed at detached houses in supplying area. It is done in a series of R & D activities of NEDO. The main specifications are as follows; the rated output 700 W, and the generating efficiency is 75% (LHV). The exhausted heat recovery efficiency is over 40% (LHV). The capacity of hot water storage tank is 90 L and its temperature is 70. In the tank thermal insulation was improved new model modules by cooperative development by Osaka Gas Co., Ltd. and Chofu Seiskusho, Ltd., and by this improvement partial load efficiency was increased and replacement of desulfurizer becomes 10 years. The capacity of the hot water tank was increased, and auxiliary heat source was changed by latent heat type, so that energy utilization efficiency was increased. Furthermore, CO2 exhaustion was reduced by about 5% and operation cost was reduced about by 15%, they said. [The Mainichi Shimbun, The Denki Shimbn (Electricity), The Nikkan Kogyo Shimbun, The Chemical Daily Sept, 8 and The Dempa Shimbun (radio wave) Spt. 9, 2010]
(4) National Institute for Material Science (NIMS)
@NIMS and a research group in Italian Rome University have succeeded in producing barium zirconium oxide with doped yttrium as membrane, in which crystal boundaries shutting electric current flow. The proton conductivity is very high at the operating temperature of 350, and it is the maximum among this type of SOFC. Furthermore, it is higher than the maximum reported till now. In the preparation the oxides are eliminated by laser. Atoms and molecules in the plasma are pile up on the substrate. (pulse laser pile up method). Thus the membrane without crystalline boundaries is formed. The ratio of conductivity of the new membrane to the conventional one is 100. It was well known that the conductivity within the crystal is high. [The Nihon Keizai Shimbun, The Nikkei Sangyo Shimbun (economy and industry), The Nikkan Kogyo Shimbun (business and technology) Sept. 20, 2010, and The Chemical Daily Sept. 22, 2010]
4. R & D of FC-Related Elementary Technologies
(1) The University of Electric Communication
@The above university started a program to fully elucidate reaction principle and catalyst structure. One of themes is "Technology development to promote real use of PEFC" which is a project adopted by NEDO as a 3 years and 2 billion yen project. As a promoting organization, FC innovation research center was established and the opening ceremony was held on Sept.2, 2010... Until 2012 "Advanced catalytic structure and reaction real time XAFS measuring beam line is going to be constructed by 1.3 billion yen in "Advanced the large scale radiation light facility "Soring-8.."
@Reaction principle and efficient catalysts of platinum would be studied, and generating efficiency will be increased and platinum used will be decreased. Thus a guide line will be got to reduce the cost. By the new measuring facility the time resolution is reduced to 1/10 in comparison with the previous one and it is 800 micron sec. Process of reaction between hydrogen and oxygen can be observed along the time. The space resolution and the depth resolution are very good and they are respectively 200 nm and 1 - 10 micron m. It can be observed where platinum of function is existed and what amount of platinum is dissolved. [The Nikkan Kogyo Shimbun (business and technology), Sept. 2nd, 2010. The Denki Shimbun (electricity), The Chemical Daily Sept. 3, 2010 and The Asahi Shimbun Sept. 7, 2010]
(2) Industrial Technology Center, Gifu Prefecture
@The paper research section of the above center developed electro-conductive medium by carbonizing Japanese paper together with firms in Gifu and Aichi prefectures.. Carbon paper made of Japanese paper is lower in electric resistance and in cost compared with that made of carbon fibers. It is expected as FC materials. Production of Japanese paper does not increase since about 1990, so that for expanding usage development of electro-conductive material by carbonization started. To avoid burn out of the paper by heating, special chemical fiber is used and carbonization is made by focused light. Thus efficient carbon paper production was succeeded. The electro-conductive carbon paper is expected as material to distribute hydrogen. [The Chunichi Shimbun and The Gifu Shimbun Sept. 9, 2010]
(3) Toho Tenax Co., Ltd.
@On Sept. 13, 2010 Toho Tenax Co., Ltd., a subsidiary company of Teijin Corp. (Tokyo) announced that it developed carbon fiber fabrics for gas diffusion layers (GCL). Conventionally, sheets of carbon fibers mixed with resin were used. By making it fabrics, hydrophobic performance is improved, and FC function is also improved, they said. By making it fabrics, the holes on the surface become 1.5 times larger to move water easily. But the fabric carbonization has a drawback, i.e.., high cost is needed when fabric is made. The company succeeded in low cost production by its own technology. By making fabrics it can be rolled out, production efficiency is also improved. Since the end of thus month the company starts to sell them, and the company is estimating one billion yen sale in 2.015 million yen. [The Nikkei Sangyo Shimbun (economy and industry), The Nikkan Kougyo Shimbun (business and technology), The Nihon Senni Shimbun (fabrics), The Fuji Sankei Business Eye, The Chemical Daily Sept. 14, 2010 and The Senni Shimbun Sept. 15, 2010]
5. EneFarm Business
(1) Osaka Gas Co., Ltd.
@Good start of EneFarm sale was seen by Osaka Gas Co., Ltd., for instance 920 sets were sold from April to July (on contracts base), and every month over 200 sets will be sold, so that it is certain that 3,000 set sale (2009 - 2010) will be over 1.7 million set (target in 2010 fiscal year). The company will positively sell double generation, which is home use cogeneration system consisting of EneFarm and Eco-well, with solar photo-generation. In August of 2009 the target was increased to 1300 set and finally it was increased to 1,380 set In 2010 fiscal year the public subsidy becomes limited, and matching with targets of house makers should be taken into account, so that increase in the targets are not considered at present.. For further expansion the cost is a large task and as a future task, half million yen is a goal. As another tasks in after follow-up should be made. [The Denki Shimbun (electricity) Oct. 27, 2010]
(2) Nihonkai Gas Co., Ltd.
@The company in Toyama city opened a show room "Prego" after renewal on Sept. 2, 2010 in Kurosaki, Fuji city. Solar photo-generation was installed outside with EneFarm to form double generation. In the show room monitors are set to show the generation and CO2 exhaustion reduction. About 300 set of the new system of the double generation are the target for 5 years. [The KitanihonShimbun and Toyamashi Shimbun Sept. 3, 2010]
(3) Nihon Gas Association
@According to a report of real installation of town gas co-generation published by Japanese Gas Association on Sept.3, 2010, accumulated installation is 966,620 and 19.7 .9% increase. Especially the home use is 90,000 kW and 20.9% increase. The most ones are Eco-well and EneFarms are 200 - 300 set. [Fuji Sankei Business Eye Sept.4, 2010 and The Denki Shimbun (electricity) Sept. 6, 2010]
(4) Sekisui House Corp.
@According to the medium statement of account as of July 2010 published on Sept.9, 2010, support by the government such as eco-point for residence (subsidy by the government for cars, electric appliances, EneFarm etc.), accepted orders of detached houses increase by 10.6 % compared with the previous term and it is 738.7 billion yen. Final gain is 13.6 billion yen (2.3 billion yen loss in the previous year.) [The Asahi Sgunbun, The Mainichi Shimbun, TheNihon Keizai Shimbun, The Sankei Shimbun, The Nikkan Kogyo Shimbun Sept. 10, 2010 and The Jutaku Shimpo Sept. 14, 2010]
(5) JX Niippon Oil & Energy Corp.
@The above company announced that it will begin sale of an energy monitor for home "Enewindow" since Oct. 1, 2010. This is the first energy monitor for home to display economic effect by introduction of solar photo-generation and EneFarm. Data of generated power, consumed power, etc. are accumulated, and energy loss and gain, power conservation are able to be confirmed. The main items are generated power, hot water storage etc. The price the maker hopes is 98,000 yen. [The Sankei Shimbun, The Denki Shimbun (electricity), The Nikkei Sangyo Shimbun (economy and industry), The Nikkan Kogyo Shimbun (business and technology), The Chemical Daily and Fuji Sankei Business Eye Sept. 14, 2010]
6. Forefronts of FCV & EV
(1) Hyundai Motor Corp.
@A Korean automobile maker, Hyundai announced that it is going to produce 2,500 EV cars by the end of 2112. It intends to supply 30 FC installed EV hatch-back "BlueOn" to governments by October. On Oct. 1, 2010 it published that it is going to produce EV based on a small car "i10" by the end of the year. [Fuji Sankei Business Eye Sept. 11, 2010]
(2) Toyota Motor Corp.
@Toyota Motor Corp. and Daimler Motor Company begin negotiation on technology transfer of hybrid cars. In addition to technology transfer,, they are going to discuss supply of main components. Beside hybrid cars, they will be searching possibility of wide range cooperation in next generation eco-friendly cars like FCV. [The Nihon Keizai Shimbun Sept. 16, 2010, The Osaka Nichinichi Shimbun, Chunichi Shimbun, The Chugoku Shimbun and The Nishnihon Shimbun Sept. 17, 2010]
@A joint venture of Toyota Motor Corp. and a Chinese First Automobile Works Group (FAW Group), "Tenshin First Toyota Motors (TFTM) set forth on Sept. 21, 2010 that they will start mass production of EV since 2012. The EV is going to be sold by the Chinese specific brand. Keeping high quality, it will make lower price cars than foreign cars and it is aiming at high position in the Chinese market share of EV cars. TFTM had developed EV trial cars, which are based on EV "VIOS" of Toyota Motor Corp. Development will be carried out in Research center opened in 2008, and "The EV will be mass-produced and sold every where in China in 2012 at its earliest possibility," they said. [The Nihon Keizai Shimbun ept. 22, 2010]
(3) Daimler Motor Company
@On Sept. 15, 2010 (at German local time), Daimler Motor Company announced that it is going to start mass production of EV based on A Class since this fall. Cars, which were opened as concept cars before, will be commercialized. About 500 are planed to be sold in European countries like Germany, France and The Netherlands. By European mileage measuring standard, "NEDC" the maximum range was kept over 200 km, and lithium ion batteries of 36 kWh capacities are installed. In a case for charging necessary for over 100 km running, charging of 8 hours by 230 V home power sources or 3 hours at 400 V is necessary. A function not attached in other EV is air conditioning, which works in charging time from grid to keep comfortable room environment. It is produced in Darmstadt, Germany. The company will invest 600 million Euro (about 67 billion Yen) from 2009 to 2012 for EV production. [The Denki Shimbun (electricity) Sept. 17, 2010]
(4) Chinese Major Automobile Companies
@Chinese automobile makers successively begin to sell EV. At first they sell them only in some cities where Chinese Government supplies subsidy, but by 2015 mass production system will be organized and they will be sold in whole areas. Total 70 billion yuan (about 890 billion yen will be invested new energy vehicles mainly to EV by 10 major companies, and the production scale of new energy vehicle capacity is estimated to 1 million cars. Diplomatic tactics among Chinese group demanding technology transfer, Japan, US and Europe become hard. BYD Auto in Canton province will start sale of EV "e6" by the end of this month. The price is assumed 300,000 yuan. The price is about 3 times higher than usual cars, but governmental subsidy would be given. In Funang province a production facility is completed, and 30,000 EV by their own developed technology will be made in 2011, while vehicles co-developed with Daimler Motor Company will be mass-produced since 2013. By 2015 300,000 cars of new energy vehicles will be sold and total investment is estimated amounts to 30 billion yuan for 3 years. [The Nihon Keizai Shimbun Sept 18, 2010]
(5) Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.
@On Sept. 21, 2010 announced that Nissan Motor Co. Ltd. will provide support service to relieve of discharged batteries .for 5 passengers EV "LEAF" which will be begun to sell in December. With portable phone, discharged state is confirmed and the car is moved to the nearest shop by a wrecker. The rate is 1,500 yen / month and improving support would promote the EV propagation. The company will pay expense for checking cars in half year interval. The company compensates cost by emergency like discharge at the maximum of 550,000 yen. [The Nihon Keizai Shimbun Sept. 22 2010]
7. Development of Hydrogen Production and Purification
@Dr. Maeda, an assistance professor in Technology faculty of Tokyo University developed new photo-catalyst which produces hydrogen at high efficiency by decomposing water with visible light illumination. This research was done together with Professor Thomas Marok et al. in US Pennsylvania State University. The quantum yield at 450 nm wave length is over 25%, which is higher than any hydrogen producing catalysts ever known, and the rate of production is also high. This group is now carrying out development of oxygen producing catalysts. Thus they intend to assemble a system converting solar energy by decomposing water to hydrogen and oxygen for hydrogen energy society. What they used is dye enhanced hydrogen producing system with niobium oxide. When niobium oxide of layer structure is torn at single molecular layer, the layer spontaneously forms tube-like form, niobic acid nano-scroll material. With this material and ruthenium based dye hydrogen is found to produce hydrogen. Compared with multi-layered niobic acid the quantum yield is over 20 times higher. Niobium oxide is layer structure of alternatively stacked layer with positive charge and negative charge. It is thought that the surface area becomes over 200 times, and by strong interaction of positively charged ruthenium dye. On the peeled positively charged surface becomes highly efficient. [The Chemical Daily Aug. 21, 2010]
8. Development and Business of Hydrogen Related Metrological Sensors
(1) Kuramoto Co., Ltd.
@Kuramoto Seisakusho Co., Ltd., a basic disc machining company in Kurihara city, begins developing gas concentration sensor with organic transistors. Professor Kubo of Okayama University (molecular interface chemistry) and Ideal Star Inc., a venture in Sendai city join this development. The transistor used is "Pycene", which was developed by Prof. Kubo and its electric resistance increases. by adsorbing impure substances. Oxygen, hydrogen and water are detected respectively at 10 ppm. The size is 1.2 mm square and they intend to decrease the consumed power to 0.01 mW below 5 V. At trial assembling stage, the voltage and the detection concentration are respectively 15 V and 10,000 ppm, while the size is 4 mm square, so that research is being carried out by looking for optimum materials. The Company is assuming sales for FC, gas sensor etc. [The Kahoku Shimbun Aug. 26, 2010]
(2) Tsuruga Electric Corp.
@Tsuruga Electric Corp. in Osaka city is going to sell a multiple point measuring instrument, "356M" for internal resistances and cell voltages in a stack, in the beginning of October. A scanner of multiple channels is set in and voltages of individual cells can be measured once. The price is 210,000 yen for 5 channel type. They are trying to sell 100 set. A scanner can be increased to 40 at the maximum. Using attached software, control of test and storage of data are both possible. [The Nikkan Kogyo Shimbun Sept.11, 2010]
9. DMFC Development and Business
@Fujikura Ltd. decided to sell DMFC on OME in 2011 fiscal year. The output is 2 W and the price is assumed below 10,000 yen. Varieties are expanded to several tens W., and in 2015 the business will expand to 10 billion yen scale. The first product will be sold on lease by a major smart phone maker. The current density is 105 mW / cm2, and the scales of DMFC, the company first made, are 140 mm, 25 mm and 75 mm in the width, the depth and the height, respectively, and it could be put in pockets of bags jackets... Methanol of 10 mL works for about 16 hours continuously. The portable phone can be charged in 2- 3 hours. It is anticipated that, propagating, smart phones in various usages in outside, demand of small FC is expanding. Toshiba Corp., which sold the first DMFC in the end of 2009 fiscal year, is developing new models, while Panasonic Corp. etc. are watching commercializing timing. [The Nikkan Kogyo Shimbun Sept. 20, 2010]
------------ This edition is made up as of September 24, 2010. ---------------
A POSTER COLUMN
NEDO Made Contract on Cooperation of Secondary Batteries Technology
@On Sept. 2, 2010 NEDO announced on memorandum together with BVBF (German Ministry of Education and Research) that it has made and set forth contract of standardization and non-competitive field of next generation secondary batteries. This is the second country following similar contracts with US Argonne National Laboratory. This is 2 year program and Information exchange network is expanded to keep leading the world.
@Beside technology utilization, standardization and post lithium secondary batteries like metal air secondary batteries are assumed to be developed, and "priority is not given to country interests but discussion should be done on one step higher level," they said. Cooperation with France, Korea and China etc should be taken into accounts.
@US Obama administration newly established Division for Energy Advanced Research Program, and professing production system supporting annual 500,000 plug-in hybrid vehicles and secondary batteries are in green new deal policy. Korean signed a note on development of lithium ion batteries for PHEV, while China made contract on EV development with US.
@Concrete contents of MOU would be determined after discussion, but collaborations among governmental research institutes and universities are assumed. NEDO concretely examines coordination with a German governmental research institute, Fraunhofer Research Institute, [corresponding to Japanese Research Institute for Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST)] with Kyoto University etc... In the German side are storage batteries research cluster, "MEET" centered by Muenster University, and solar photo-energy and hydrogen energy cluster "ZSW," located in South Germany. The R & D should not be carried out by trial and error method, but they should be done for common targets of performance like energy density set by principle and theoretical consideration.
@The Denki Shimbun (electricity), The Nikkei Sangyo Shimbun (economy and industry) Sept. 22, 2010]
TOYOTA, Hitachi and Panasonic Denko start Next Generation Grid Experiment with Japan Wind Development Co., Ltd.
@The above 3 companies, Toyota Motor Corp., Hitachi Corp. and Panasonic Electric Industry Co., Ltd. start demonstration of smart grid in Rokkasho village, Aomori prefecture in this week with a major wind generation company. Electric transmission lines, detached houses (2 houses by each company) etc. were newly built, and they are going to develop technology to use 100 % natural energy efficiently. The demonstration is going to be done by 2012, for about 2 years.
@The 3 companies, Toyota, Panasonic Denko and Japan Wind, completed 2 houses each in the village, and some devises are installed in thee "smart house". Engineers etc. lived in the houses and repeated charge and discharge into cars and batteries to find points to be improved. In Toyota houses PHEV, which can be really charged and discharged by home power sources. To operate batteries installed in cars as general use batteries, an energy system will work. In some of smart houses, solar cell panels and small wind mills are set. By using .multiple sources, tasks to use these multiple sources are examined. Hitachi will install in all houses "smart meters" to send information of generated power and consumed power to the control center. The information is used to study a devise to reduce the consumption. The power sources used are wind mills of Japan Wind in Rokkasho village and 100 kW solar panels built by Hitachi. The center controls the generating power, watching demand data. Using batteries attached generating devises, they would establish technology to control wind energy.
@The transmission lines used in this demonstration was wired by Japan Wind. Power failure can be happened artificially, so that tests, which are difficult in an experimental room,. can be done to get data for technological improvement of the other companies. The demonstration is carried out without governmental support but with funds by the participating companies. Companies hurry technology development in environment close to real life. For instance, Toyota joined this program in this viewpoint.
@[The Nihon Keizai Shimbun Sept. 15, 2010]